Prehistoric Times

The Austronesians started the island from the north then established the longhouses communal settlement. Inter-clan wars that cause constantly mobile settlements. The traditional headhunting brought from Formosa (Taiwan) and the belief in respecting ancestors with the tradition of loggerhead graves is a common characteristic of the inhabitants. The island of Borneo is known all over the world by the name of Kalimantan, namely since the 15th century AD The name Kalimantan is derived from the name of the Borneol tree (Latin: Dryobalanops camphora) containing terpetin (C10H17.OH), an ingredient for antiseptics or used for fragrance oils and camphor, camphor wood which is widely grown in Kalimantan, then by traders from Europe called the island of Borneo or borneol-producing island, the Kingdom of Brunei which compiled the arrival of Europeans into this Nusantara region "Borneo" and henceforth the name Borneo is extended throughout the world. The name of this island is identified with the name of the Kingdom of Brunei at that time (Namely by Arab traders, Europeans and Chinese) because the Kingdom of Brunei at that time was the largest kingdom on this island, so traders from all over the world would visit the island. this is what they are aiming for is the largest kingdom on the island when it was the Kingdom of Brunei, so the island was later called the island of Brunei which by European traders was later blended into "Kalimantan". The name Kalimantan was used in the Banjar Sultanate and then the government of the Republic of Indonesia was used as the name for the Province of Kalimantan.

Hindu-Buddhist era

The Malays calls it Pulau Hujung Tanah or P'ulo Chung. Foreign traders come to this island in search of natural commodities such as camphor, candles and swallow's nests to trade with high-value ceramic jars in the Dayak community. Indian migrants and Malays who have been influenced by Indian culture enter river mouths in search of agricultural land and find gold mines and diamonds to meet market demand. Gold mining locations develop into settlements so leadership is needed. The Indian influence was marked by the emergence of an early stage of the kingdom with the use of the title Maharaja for the leader of a kin (bubuhan) and a group of other people who joined in leadership in the territorial unity of the wanua (district), which were at odds with the neighboring women of other families inhabited by the heads of their own parents. . The South Indian title of warman (which protects) is attached to the ruler of the woman, who then forces the neighboring women to pay tribute in the form of gold and natural products that are sold. The clans (bubuhan) began to be united by a political force that was centered into a mandala (kingdom) which was actually not an Austronesian tradition. This early kingdom was already a mixture of groups that came from several regions, but in the interior of the Austronesian people still lived in longhouse communities that were independent and separate and fought each other to hunt heads.

 

Colony era

 The Italians were the first Europeans to visit Borneo in the 14th century, followed by the Spaniards, British and Dutch. The Sambas kingdom was the first area under Dutch influence since the contract with the VOC was made by Ratu Sapudak (Raja Sambas) on 1 October 1609. On 4 September 1635, the Banjar Sultanate made the first trade contract with the VOC and the VOC would assist Banjar conquering Paser. Since 1636, Banjarmasin has been trying to become a mandala center for other kingdoms in West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan. Hikayat Banjar noted the sending of tribute to the Sultan of Banjarmasin from Sambas, Sukadana, Paser, Kutai, Berau, Karrasi (Buranun / Sulu), Sewa Agung (Sawakung), Bunyut and countries in Batang Lawai. Sukadana (formerly called Tanjungpura) was the mother of the Tayan, Meliau, Sanggau and Mempawah kingdoms. In 1638 in Banjarmasin there was a tragedy of the massacre of the Dutch and Japanese so that the Dutch sent a punitive expedition and made threats against the Banjarmasin Sultanate, Kotawaringin Kingdom and Sukadana Kingdom. In 1700 Sukadana (Matan) suffered defeat in the war with the Hedgehog (vazal Banten). The Hedgehogs were assisted by Banten and the VOC, so Banten claimed the Hedgehog and Sukadana (mostly West Kalimantan) as its territory. In 1756 the VOC tried to get Lawai, Sintang and Sanggau from Banjarmasin. The initial area in Kalimantan which was claimed to belong to the VOC was the area along the coast from Sukadana to Mempawah given by the Sultanate of Banten on March 26, 1778. The VOC had set up factories in Sukadana and Mempawah but 14 years later was abandoned because it was not productive (Sir Stamford Rafless, The History of Java). The establishment of the Pontianak Sultanate which was supported by the VOC at the mouth of the Landak river was initially protested by the Landak because it was its territory but eventually relaxed due to VOC pressure. On August 13, 1787, the Banjar Sultanate became a VOC protectorate area and Banjarmasin vazals were handed over to the VOC covering East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, parts of South Kalimantan, and the interior of West Kalimantan, which were reaffirmed in the 1826 treaty. The Dutch East Indies then formed the Sambas Residency and then followed the establishment of the Pontianak Residency. with the appointment of kings as regents in the Dutch East Indies colonial government. Later the Sambas Residency was merged into the Pontianak Residency and the West Kalimantan hinterland became the West Borneo Residency. In 1860 the Dutch East Indies abolished the Banjar Sultanate, then finally its territory became part of the Residency of South Afdeeling and East Borneo.

Nica & Federalism

After taking over Kalimantan from the hands of Japan, NICA urged the Federal Kalimantan to immediately establish the State of Kalimantan following the established State of East Indonesia. Thus the West Kalimantan Council was formed on October 28, 1946, which became the Special Region of West Kalimantan on May 27, 1947; with the Regional Head, Sultan Hamid II of the Pontianak Sultanate with the rank of Major General. Its territory consists of 13 kingdoms as self-government as in the Dutch East Indies era namely Sambas, Pontianak, Mempawah, Hedgehog, Kubu, Tayan, Meliau, Sekadau, Sintang, Selimbau, Simpang, Sukadana and Matan. The Great Dayak Council was formed on 7 December 1946, and subsequently on 8 January 1947 the Pagatan Council, the Sea Island Council and the Sampanahan Cantung Council were formed to join the Federation of Southeast Kalimantan. Then on February 18, 1947 the Sand Council and the Federation of East Kalimantan were formed, which finally on August 26, 1947 merged into the East Kalimantan Council. Subsequently the East Kalimantan Region became the Special Region of East Kalimantan with the Regional Head, Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit of the Sultanate of Kutai with the rank of Colonel. The Banjar region which had been squeezed by the federal area was finally formed by the Banjar Council on January 14, 1948. The formation of the Kalimantan State was thwarted by the people of Banjarmasin by carrying out guerrillas in the interior under the leadership of Kalimantan's Guerrilla Father Hasan Basry. The Governor of Kalimantan in the Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Yogyakarta, Prince Muhammad Noor, sent Cilik Riwut and Hasan Basry on a mission to fight for independence to face the power of the NICA. On 17 May 1949, Lt. Col. Hasan Basry as Governor of the ALRI Army Region IV Kalimantan Defense proclaimed a Kalimantan Proclamation whose contents that "Kalimantan" remained as an inseparable part of the Republic of Indonesia which had been proclaimed on August 17, 1945. The Military Governor's Government was an attempt counter to the formation of the Banjar Council established by the Netherlands.